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Pyrrolidine CAS 123-75-1 Tetrahydropyrrole

  • Pyrrolidine, CAS 123-75-1, Tetrahydropyrrole, C4H9N
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Pyrrolidine CAS 123-75-1, also known as tetrahydropyrrole, is an organic compound with the molecular formula (CH2)4NH. It is a cyclic secondary amine, also classified as a saturated heterocycle. It is a colourless liquid that is miscible with water and most organic solvents. It has a characteristic odor that has been described as “ammoniacal, fishy, shellfish-like”. In addition to pyrrolidine itself, many substituted pyrrolidines are known.

Pyrrolidine Product Information

Product NamePyrrolidine
CAS NO123-75-1
Molecular FormulaC4H9N
Molecular Weight71.12
Melting point-63 °C
Boiling Point87-88 °C(lit.)
Flash Point37 °F
StorageStore at dry and cool place
AppearanceColorless or yellow liquid with a special smell
SolubilityMiscible with alcohol, ether, chloroform and water.

CAS 123-75-1 Picture

Pyrrolidine, CAS 123-75-1, Tetrahydropyrrole, C4H9N

Production and synthesis

Industrial production

Pyrrolidine is prepared industrially by the reaction of 1,4-butanediol and ammonia at a temperature of 165–200 °C and a pressure of 17–21 MPa in the presence of a cobalt- and nickel oxide catalyst, which is supported on alumina.

Reaction of 1,4-butanediol with ammonia to form pyrrolidine and water in the presence of a nickel oxide catalyst supported on alumina

The reaction is carried out in the liquid phase in a continuous tube- or tube bundle reactor, which is operated in the cycle gas method. The catalyst is arranged as a fixed-bed and the conversion is carried out in the downflow mode. The product is obtained after multistage purification and separation by extractive and azeotropic distillation.

Laboratory synthesis

In the laboratory, pyrrolidine was usually synthesised by treating 4-chlorobutan-1-amine with a strong base:

Synthesis of pyrrolidine

Furthermore, 5-membered N-heterocyclic ring of the pyrrolidine derivatives can be synthesized via cascade reactions.


Pyrrolidine is a base. Its basicity is typical of other dialkyl amines. Relative to many secondary amines, pyrrolidine is distinctive because of its compactness, a consequence of its cyclic structure.

Pyrrolidine is used as a building block in the synthesis of more complex organic compounds. It is used to activate ketones and aldehydes toward nucleophilic addition by formation of enamines (e.g. used in the Stork enamine alkylation):


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